If you are looking to finance a mortgage, government-backed solutions offer appealing terms for those that qualify. While conventional loans from private lenders may come with flexibility and the potential for savings, a government loan can help borrowers with lower credit scores and those in lower income brackets gain access to homeownership.
What Are Government-Backed Mortgages?
Government-backed mortgages are loans that the federal government insures through one of three government agencies. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) insure the loan, which protects the lender from borrower default. This mechanism keeps lender risk low and makes it easier for them to offer the benefits that government-backed mortgage recipients enjoy.
If you meet the requirements for a government-backed mortgage, you can get a lower interest rate on your loan than borrowers dealing directly with private lending institutions. You may not have to make a down payment on your government-insured loan, depending on the lender.
Conventional mortgage lenders often abide by the 20% down payment rule, asking that you put 20% of the property’s value down to significantly lower their risk.
Government-backed mortgages reduce this burden for qualified borrowers. Some government-backed lenders do not require any down payment, while others start as low as 3.5%. This percentage is based on your credit score and financial history.
Some types of government-backed loans require borrowers to purchase mortgage insurance. This further protects lenders from borrower default on payments.
Types of Government-Backed Loans You can Get
The terms of your government-backed loan depend on your needs. You can take out a government-backed mortgage to buy a house, refinance a mortgage, make home improvements, or for special cases like relief after a disaster.
Mortgage for Buying a House
Taking out a mortgage to buy a home is one of the most common reasons consumers turn to federal loan programs, especially first-time home buyers. Those looking to buy their first home can benefit from the more lenient terms federal programs offer than conventional mortgages.
VA loans help active military members, some National Guard members, and qualified veterans secure advantageous terms for financing their home purchase. These mortgages usually come with a $0 down payment requirement that private lenders do not offer. VA loans don’t require high credit scores, offer reduced closing costs, and the borrower will not need mortgage insurance.
Instead, borrowers pay a one-time VA funding fee. You can either pay the fee upfront or include it in your mortgage. Veterans Affairs pays back a portion of the loan balance if the borrower defaults, helping to cover the loss.
The FHA is the largest insurer of residential loans in the world. Their size allows the government agency to back tens of millions of mortgages with down payments as low as 3.5% for a minimum FICO score of 580. Besides accommodating borrowers with lower credit scores, the FHA will accept mortgage seekers with higher debt-to-income ratios, a risk private lenders are less willing to take.
The FHA offers payment assistance programs for those who need help covering their down payment or closing costs. FHA mortgages do require mortgage insurance. All borrowers will need to pay an upfront mortgage insurance premium along with an annual mortgage insurance premium.
The USDA offers rural development loans for building, buying, or updating a primary residence. To qualify for this USDA loan, you need to be a U.S. citizen and cannot exceed their income limits. Your home will also need to meet specific location guidelines. Like FHA loans, a USDA loan does not require a down payment for qualifying applicants and offers attractive mortgage rates for prospective homebuyers.
Refinancing involves replacing your current mortgage with one that offers better terms. You can save money on interest, lower your monthly payment, pay your mortgage off sooner, or draw money against your home’s equity if you need cash.
VA and FHA Refinancing
Veterans Affairs and the Federal Housing Administration both offer mortgage refinancing. Their programs include cash-out refinancing for borrowers who want to borrow cash against their home equity. To qualify for cash-out financing, you must have at least 12 months of on-time payments and sufficient home equity.
For refinancing, both VA and FHA reduce or eliminate the need for income-qualifying documentation. The two agencies will not usually require an appraisal for the refinance.
You can refinance a USDA mortgage as long as you maintain a credit score of 640 or higher and are up-to-date on your payments. USDA Streamlined Assist, a refinancing option that doesn’t require an appraisal, allows you to skip the home inspection, appraisal, and credit review if you qualify for the loan.
However, not all mortgage lenders offer to refinance USDA loans. You will need to do competitive research and choose a lender with a favorable interest rate that will allow you to refinance your USDA mortgage.
Use a Government-Backed Mortgage for Home Improvements
A mortgage for making home improvements is also called a renovation loan. This type of loan includes funds you can use to remodel and repair your home.
VA and FHA Energy-Efficient Loans
VA and FHA offer energy-efficient loans to provide the necessary funds for upgrading your home with energy-saving upgrades. You will have to show that the modifications you intend to make are cost-effective by obtaining a home energy assessment. This assessment will pinpoint opportunities for maximizing your home’s efficiency and determine the amount you can borrow.
A VA home loan allows qualified borrowers to finance up to $6,000 worth of improvements, provided you get approval.
FHA Home Improvement Loans
FHA Title 1 home improvement loans allow qualified borrowers up to $25,000 for their repairs, alterations, or improvements for single-family homes. If you own a multifamily home, you can borrow up to $12,000 per unit or $60,000 total, whichever is the lowest. The term limit on FHA improvement loans is 20 years.
FHA 203(k) Loans
An FHA 203(k) loan, also known as rehab mortgage insurance, allows you to refinance a home while packaging the cost of improvements in the same loan. Modifications you can make using an FHA 203(k) loan include reconstruction, plumbing replacement, landscape work, and enhancement of disability access.
Other Types of Government-Backed Home Loans
There are also government-back loans that cater to rural residents and Native Americans.
Home Loans for Native American Veterans
Native American veterans and their spouses can use VA’s Native American Direct Loan program to buy, construct, or improve their homes. The program covers refinancing of existing home mortgages.
To qualify, the veteran’s tribal or other sovereign governing body must enter into a Memorandum of Understanding with Veterans Affairs. The borrower can then apply for a fixed-rate, 30-year loan for their home, which must be located on Native American trust land to be eligible.
Section 184 Indian Home Loans
Section 184 Indian home loans apply to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and members of other federally recognized tribes and villages for their home construction and improvement needs. Native Hawaiians can benefit from the same benefits under the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Section 184 program.
As a borrower, you apply with a participating lender while working with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the tribe if you are leasing tribal land. The lender assesses the loan documentation and submits it to Housing and Urban Development for approval.
Rural Housing Repair Loans and Grants
Under the USDA Section 504 Home Repair Program, those living in rural areas can take advantage of government-backed lending for home improvement and emergency repair needs. This program helps people on a tight budget and those who have difficulty securing a loan from other sources.
To qualify for grants under the Section 504 Home repair program, you must be 62 or older and be unable to repay a Section 504 loan.
FHA Loans for Disaster Victims
Under Section 203(h), the FHA can insure mortgages made by lenders to those with damages from a major disaster. If you are in the process of rebuilding your damaged home or buying another one, you may benefit from the $0 down payment the program offers. Keep in mind that you will have to pay home insurance as the FHA does not cover it.
Home and Property Disaster Loans
If your county is declared a disaster area, you may qualify for a low-interest loan. The Small Business Administration distributes Home and Personal Property loans that help renters and owners recover from a major disaster.
Loans of up to $200,000 are available for homeowners who need to repair or replace their primary residence. Renters may borrow up to $40,000 to replace any personal property that was damaged or destroyed.
Finding the Best Government-Backed Mortgage
Government-backed mortgages are valuable tools for those looking to buy a new home, renovate their current residence, fund energy-saving modifications, or recover from a disaster. Those looking to borrow cash against their home equity can also use a government-backed program.
While most government lending programs have similar attributes, you will need to compare eligibility requirements, borrowing limits, and terms of the loans to find the best fit for you. If you qualify, you can enjoy low-interest rates and a minimal down payment to make buying or renovating your home less stressful.
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Disclaimer: All content on this site is information of a general nature and does not address the circumstances of any particular entity or individual, nor is the information a substitute for professional financial advice and services.